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The Wasted World of Gunnery Sergeant DeShane
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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 12 Jun 2012 13:25 
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Top Stories for the month of May, 1958:


Quote:
May 3rd - Cape Canaveral (INN)

"Today, the United States launched Explorer 1, America's first orbital satellite." Director Dickinson announced in a short press conference. After the press conference was completed Director Dickinson released the following information on America's firt satellite orbiting our planet.

President Eisenhower released a statement affirming his confidence in NASA, and feels the future is bright for the US space effort under NASA's guidance.

The Jupiter C rocket was launched May 3rd, putting Explorer 1 into orbit with a perigee of 222 miles and an apogee of 1,580 miles having a period of 114.8 minutes. At about 1:30 a.m. EST, after confirming that Explorer 1 was indeed in orbit, the news conference was held in the Great Hall at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC and announced it to the world.

Explorer 1 was designed and built by the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the direction of Dr. William H. Pickering.

The total weight of the satellite is 30.80 lbs, of which 18.3 lbs are part of the instrumentation package. The instrument section at the front end of the satellite and the empty scaled-down fourth-stage rocket casing orbit as a single unit, spinning around its long axis at 750 revolutions per minute.

Data from the satellite is transmitted to the ground by two antennas. A 60 milliwatt transmitter feeds a dipole antenna, consisting of two fiberglass slot antennas in the body of the satellite, operating on 108.03 MHz, and four flexible whips forming a turnstile antenna are fed by a 10 milliwatt transmitter operating on 108.00 MHz.

Because of the limited space available and the requirements for low weight, the payload was designed and built with simplicity and high reliability in mind, using new transistor based electronics, consisting of both germanium and silicon devices. A total of 29 transistors are used in Explorer 1. Electrical power is provided by mercury chemical batteries that make up approximately 40 percent of the payload weight.

The external skin of the payload section is painted in alternating stripes of white and dark green to provide passive temperature control of the satellite. The proportions of the light and dark stripes were determined by studies of shadow-sunlight intervals based on firing time, trajectory, orbit, and inclination.



Statistics on the Jupiter C rocket:

Size

Height: 69.5 feet
Diameter: 5.8 feet
Mass: 64,070 lb
Stages: 4

Capacity

Payload to LEO: 42 lbs

Performance

First Stage: Redstone (stretched)
Engines: 1x Rocketdyne A-7
Thrust: 93,562 lbf
Specific Impulse: 235 sec
Burn Time: 155 seconds
Fuel: Hydyne/LOX

Second Stage: MGM-29 Sergeant cluster
Engines: 11 Solid
Thrust: 16,490 lbf
Specific Impulse: 214 sec
Burn Time: 6 seconds
Fuel: Solid - polysulfide-aluminum and ammonium perchlorate

Third Stage: MGM-29 Sergeant cluster
Engines: 3 Solid
Thrust: 4,500 lbf
Specific Impulse: 214 sec
Burn Time: 6 seconds
Fuel: Solid - polysulfide-aluminum and ammonium perchlorate

Fourth Stage: MGM-29 Sergeant
Engines: 1 Solid
Thrust: 1,499 lbf
Specific Impulse: 214 sec
Burn Time: 6 seconds
Fuel: Solid - polysulfide-aluminum and ammonium perchlorate



Quote:
May 17th - Cape Canaveral (INN)

"Today, the United States launched Vanguard 1, mankind's first orbiting solar satellite." Director Dickinson announced in a press conference today. After the press conference was completed Director Dickinson released the following information on the firt solar satellite orbiting our planet.

In August 1955, the DOD Committee on Special Capabilities chose the NRL proposal, named Project Vanguard, for the IGY project. The Martin company became the prime contractor for the launch vehicle.

The Vanguard rocket is designed as a three-stage vehicle. The first stage is a General Electric X-405 liquid-fueled engine (designated XLR50-GE-2 by the Navy), derived from the engine of the RTV-N-12a Viking.

The second stage is the Aerojet General AJ10-37 (XLR52-AJ-2) liquid-fueled engine, a variant of the engine in the RTV-N-10 Aerobee. Finally, the third stage is a solid-propellant rocket motor.

All three-stage Vanguard flights are expected to use a motor built by the Grand Central Rocket Company. Vanguard has no fins, and the first and second stages are steered by gimbaled engines.

The second stage houses the vehicle's telemetry system, the inertial guidance system and the autopilot. The third stage is spin stabilized, the spin being imparted by a turn-table on the second stage before separation.

The three stage launch Vanguard vehicle placed Vanguard 1 into a 406 × 2,466 mi, 134.2 minute elliptical orbit inclined at 34.25 degrees on May 17, 1958.

The Vanguard satellite is a 3.2 lb aluminum sphere 6.4 inches in diameter. It contains a 10 mW, 108 MHz transmitter powered by a mercury battery and a 5 mW, 108.03 MHz transmitter that is powered by six solar cells mounted on the body of the satellite.

Six short antennas protrude from the sphere. The transmitters are used primarily for engineering and tracking data, but are also used to determine the total electron content between the satellite and ground stations. Vanguard 1 also carries two thermistors that will measure the interior temperature over sixteen days, in order to track the effectiveness of the thermal protection.

The 10 mW mercury battery powered transmitter on the 108 MHz band used for International Geophysical Year (IGY) scientific satellites, and the 5 mW, 108.03 MHz transmitter powered by six solar cells are used as part of a radio phase-comparison angle-tracking system.

The tracking data is expected to show that the shape of the Earth has a north-south asymmetry, occasionally described as pear-shaped with the stem at the North Pole. These radio signals will be also used to determine the total electron content between the satellite and selected ground-receiving stations.

Because of its symmetrical shape, Vanguard 1 will be used by experimenters for use in determining the upper atmospheric densities as a function of altitude, latitude, season, and solar activity. As the satellite continuously orbits, it is expected to lag from its predicted positions slightly, accumulating greater and greater delay due to drag of the residual atmosphere.

By measuring the rate and timing of orbital shifts, together with the body's drag properties, the relevant atmosphere's parameters can be back-calculated.

This experiment was extensively planned prior to launch. Initial Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) proposals for the project included conical satellite bodies; this eliminated the need for a separate fairing and ejection mechanisms, and their associated weight and failure modes. Dr. James Van Allen, of the University of Iowa, proposed a cylindrical satellite, which eventually became Explorer 1, the first American satellite.

Radio tracking would gather data and establish a position. Early in the program, optical tracking (with a Baker-Nunn camera network and human spotters) was added. A panel of scientists proposed changing the design to spheres, at least twenty inches in diameter and hopefully thirty.

A sphere would have a constant optical reflection, and constant coefficient of drag, based on size alone, while a cone would have properties that varied with its orientation.

The Naval Research Laboratory finally accepted a sphere with a 6.4-inch diameter as a test vehicle, with a diameter of twenty inches set for the follow-on satellites. The weight savings, from reduced size as well as decreased instrumentation in the early satellites, is considered to be an acceptable trade off.



Statistics on the Vanguard rocket:

Size

Height: 75 feet
Diameter: 3.74 feet
Mass: 22,156 lb
Stages: 3

Capacity

Payload to LEO: 46 lbs

Performance

First Stage: Vanguard
Engines: 1 X-405
Thrust: 30,303 lbf
Specific Impulse: 248 lbf·s/lb
Burn Time: 2 min 25 seconds
Fuel: LOX / Kerosene

Second Stage: Delta
Engines: 1 AJ10-37
Thrust: 2,599 lbf
Specific Impulse: 261 lbf·s/lb
Burn Time: 1 min 55 seconds
Fuel: Nitric acid/UDMH

Third Stage: Grand Central
Engines: 1 GCRC
Thrust: 2,608 lbf
Specific Impulse: 230 lbf·s/lb
Burn Time: 31 seconds
Fuel: Solid - polysulfide-aluminum and ammonium perchlorate


Raymond Roberts
Science Desk, International News Network


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_________________
Benno the Mad Wrote:
man, you gotta realise that thor and bos fell out of the patriot tree (like the ugly tree, but instills patriotism instead of ugly) and hit every branch on the way down.


"Gone now, dispersed by the brutal destruction of this one day, was the belief that the Darkman and his army of the dead were so superior as to be invincible. By attempting to destroy the morale of the Marines, the Darkman had restored it to full vigor. Dia De La Muerto had failed in its objectives."
The Gunny: Stand of the 300

Si vis pacem, para bellum
If you want peace, prepare for war

Gunny's color #FF2400
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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 12 Jun 2012 15:13 
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Top Stories for the month of May, 1958:


Quote:
May 1 - Buenos Aires (INN)

Arturo Frondizi becomes President of Argentina.


May 12 – Washington (INN)

Today a formal agreement between the United States and Canada was signed, bringing into being the North American Aerospace Defense Command.

The North American Aerospace Defense Command is a joint organization of Canada and the United States that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, and defense for the two countries. The headquarters for NORAD is located at Peterson AFB, Colorado Springs, Colorado. NORAD command and control is exercised through the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center, located a short distance away.

The growing perception of the threat of long-range Soviet strategic bombers armed with nuclear weapons brought the U.S. and Canada into closer cooperation for air defense. While attacks from the Pacific or Atlantic would be detected by Navy ships, or offshore radar platforms, the Arctic is underprotected.

In the early 1950s the U.S. and Canada agreed to construct a series of radar stations across North America to detect a Soviet attack over the Arctic. The first series of radars was the Pinetree Line, completed in 1954 and consisting of 33 stations across southern Canada. However, technical defects in the system led to more radar networks being built.

In 1957, the McGill Fence was completed; it consists of Doppler radar for the detection of low-flying aircraft. This system is roughly 300 miles north of the Pinetree Line along the 55th parallel north. The third joint system is the Distant Early Warning Line (DEW Line), also completed in 1957. This is a network of 58 stations along the 69th parallel north.

The systems give around three hours warning of a bomber attack before they could reach any major population center. None-the-less, both nations felt that stopping incoming bombers would be very difficult.

The command and control of the massive system has become a significant challenge. Discussions and studies of joint systems had been ongoing since the early 1950s and culminated on 1 August 1957, with the announcement by the U.S. and Canada to establish an integrated command, the North American Air Defense Command. On 12 September, operations commenced in Colorado. A formal NORAD agreement between the two governments was signed today, 12 May 1958.

The organization was established as a joint command between the governments of Canada and the United States, as the North American Air Defense Command. Its main technical facility will be the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center, of the Cheyenne Mtn. Air Force Station, Colorado.

Similar to the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center, but on a smaller scale, is the Canada East and Canada West Sector Air Operations Control Centers and are located in an underground complex 600 feet below the surface at the Canadian Forces Base (CFB) North Bay in Ontario.


Organization:

The Commander of NORAD and U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) maintains a headquarters and command center at Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The NORAD and USNORTHCOM Command Center serves as a central collection and coordination facility for a worldwide system of sensors designed to provide the commander and the leadership of Canada and the U.S. with an accurate picture of any aerospace or maritime threat. NORAD has administratively divided the North American landmass into three regions, the Alaska NORAD (ANR) Region, under Eleventh Air Force; the Canadian NORAD (CANR) Region, under 1 Canadian Air Division, and the Continental U.S. (CONR) Region, under 1 AF/CONR-AFNORTH. Both the CONR and CANR regions are divided into eastern and western sectors.

Alaska NORAD Region:
The Alaska NORAD Region (ANR) maintains 24-hour-a-day, seven-day-a-week capability to detect, validate and warn of any atmospheric threat in its area of operations from its Regional Operations Control Center (ROCC) at Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. The ANR also maintains the readiness to conduct a continuum of aerospace control missions, which include daily air sovereignty in peacetime, contingency and/or deterrence in time of tension, and active air defense against manned and unmanned air-breathing atmospheric vehicles in times of crisis.

The ANR is supported by both active duty and reserve units. Active duty forces are provided by the Eleventh Air Force and the Canadian Forces, and reserve forces are provided by the Alaska Air National Guard. Both 11 AF and the CF provide active duty personnel to the ROCC to maintain continuous surveillance of Alaskan airspace.

Canadian NORAD Region:
1 Canadian Air Division/Canadian NORAD Region Headquarters is at CFB Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is responsible for providing surveillance and control of Canadian airspace. The Royal Canadian Air Force provides alert assets to NORAD. The CANR is divided into two sectors, which are designated as the Canada East Sector and Canada West Sector. Both Sector Operations Control Centers (SOCCs) are co-located at CFB North Bay Ontario. The routine operation of the SOCCs includes reporting track data, sensor status, and aircraft alert status to NORAD headquarters.

Canadian air defense forces assigned to NORAD include the 441st and 416th Tactical Fighter Squadrons at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta and 425th and 433rd Tactical Fighter Squadrons at CFB Bagotville, Quebec.

In cooperation with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Canadian NORAD Region monitors all air traffic approaching the coast of Canada. Any aircraft that has not filed a flight plan may be directed to land and be inspected by RCMP and the Canada Border Services Agency.

Continental United States NORAD Region:
The Continental NORAD Region (CONR) is the component of NORAD that provides airspace surveillance and control and directs air sovereignty activities for the Continental United States (CONUS). CONR is the NORAD designation of the United States Air Force (AFNORTH). Its headquarters is located at Tyndall AFB, Florida.

CONR-AFNORTH comprises State Air National Guard Fighter Wings assigned an air defense mission to CONR-AFNORTH, made up primarily of citizen Airmen. The primary weapons systems are the F-104 Starfighter aircraft. It plans, conducts, controls, coordinates, and ensures air sovereignty and provides for the unilateral defense of the United States. It is organized with a command post at Tyndall AFB and two Sector Operations Control Centers (SOCC) at Rome, New York for the US East ROCC and McChord Field, Washington for the US West ROCC manned by active duty personnel to maintain continuous surveillance of CONUS airspace.


May 13th - Paris (INN)

Today French Algerian protesters seized government offices in Algiers, which led to a military coup.

Recurrent cabinet crises focused attention on the inherent instability of the French Fourth Republic and increased the misgivings of the army and of the colonists that the security of Algeria was being undermined by party politics. Army commanders have been chaffing at what they call inadequate and incompetent government support of military efforts to end the ongoing rebellion.

The feeling is widespread that another debacle like that of Indochina in 1954 is in the offing and that the government would order another precipitate pullout and sacrifice French honor to political expediency. Many see in war hero Charles de Gaulle, who had not held office since 1946, the only public figure capable of rallying the nation and giving direction to the French government.

fter his tour as governor general, Jacques Soustelle has returned to France to organize support for de Gaulle's return to power, while retaining close ties to the army and the settlers. By early 1958, he had organized a coup d'état, bringing together dissident army officers and colonial officials with sympathetic Gaullists. An army junta under General Jacques Massu seized power in Algiers on the night of 13 May.

General Salan assumed the leadership of a Committee of Public Safety formed to replace the civil authority and pressed the junta's demands that de Gaulle be named by French president René Coty to head a government of national union invested with extraordinary powers to prevent the “abandonment of Algeria.” Salan announced on radio that the Army had “provisionally taken over responsibility for the destiny of French Algeria.” Under the pressure of Massu, Salan declared Vive de Gaulle! from the balcony of the Algiers Government-General building on 15 May. De Gaulle answered two days later that he was ready to “assume the powers of the Republic”. Many Frenchmen worry since they see this answer as support for the army's coup.

At a May 19th press conference, de Gaulle asserted again that he was at the disposal of the country. As a journalist expressed the concerns of some who feared that he would violate civil liberties, de Gaulle retorted vehemently: “Have I ever done that? Quite the opposite, I have re-established them when they had disappeared. Who honestly believes that, at age 67, I would start a career as a dictator?”

On May 24th, French paratroopers from the Algerian corps landed on Corsica, taking the French island in a bloodless action called Operation Corse.
Political leaders on many sides agreed to support the General's return to power, except François Mitterrand, who is minister of Guy Mollet's Socialist government, Pierre Mendès-France, a Young Turk of the Radical-Socialist Party, former Prime Minister Alain Savary, also a member of the French Section of the Workers' International, SFIO, the Communist Party, etc.

The philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, famous existentialist author, was quoted as saying “I would rather vote for God.”

On May 29th the French President, René Coty, appealed to the “most illustrious of Frenchmen” to become the last President of the Council (Prime Minister) of the Fourth Republic. De Gaulle accepted Coty's proposal under the precondition that a new constitution would be introduced creating a powerful presidency in which a sole executive, the first of which was to be himself, ruled for seven-year periods. Another condition was that he be granted extraordinary powers for a period of six months.


May 13th - Washington (INN)

During a state visit to Caracas, Venezuela, Vice President Richard M. Nixon's car was attacked by anti-American demonstrators.


May 15

In the real world The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 3.


May 18 – Washington (INN)

Today an F-104 Starfighter sets a world speed record of 1,404.19 mph.


May 20 – Havana

Today Cuba's President Fulgencio Batista's government launches a counteroffensive against Rebel leader Castro's forces.


May 21 – London (INN)

The United Kingdom Postmaster General Ernest Marples announced today that Subscriber Trunk Dialling will be introduced in the Bristol area.


May 30 – Washington (INN)

The bodies of unidentified United States soldiers killed in action during World War II and the Korean War are buried at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington National Cemetery.


David Richlen
International Desk, International News Network


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_________________
Benno the Mad Wrote:
man, you gotta realise that thor and bos fell out of the patriot tree (like the ugly tree, but instills patriotism instead of ugly) and hit every branch on the way down.


"Gone now, dispersed by the brutal destruction of this one day, was the belief that the Darkman and his army of the dead were so superior as to be invincible. By attempting to destroy the morale of the Marines, the Darkman had restored it to full vigor. Dia De La Muerto had failed in its objectives."
The Gunny: Stand of the 300

Si vis pacem, para bellum
If you want peace, prepare for war

Gunny's color #FF2400
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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 13 Jun 2012 14:04 
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Top Stories for the month of June, 1958:


Quote:
June 1 - Paris (INN)

Today Charles de Gaulle's newly formed cabinet was approved by the National Assembly, by 329 votes against 224, while he was also granted the power to govern by ordinances for a six-month period as well saddled with the task of drafting a new Constitution.

De Gaulle has blamed the institutions of the Fourth Republic for France's political weakness. Since he was commissioned to draft the new constitution and is responsible for its overall framework, de Gaulle is sometimes being described as the author of the constitution, although it will be drafted by the Gaullist Michel Debré.

Our sources have revealed that the draft will espouse the 1946 speech of Bayeux's propositions, and will lead to a strong executive and to a rather presidential regime. The President will be granted the responsibility of governing the Council of Ministers, as well as granting extraordinary powers to the president if a state of emergency is proclaimed.


June 1 - Reykjavik (INN)

Today Iceland has extended its fishing limits to 12 miles, which raised concerned voices in the British fishing industry.


June 2 – San Simeon (INN)

In San Simeon, California, Hearst Castle has been opened to the public for guided tours.


June 4 – Paris (INN)

It was announced today that French President Charles De Gaulle will visit Algeria in a state sponsored visit.


June 8 – River Rouge (INN)

Today the SS Edmund Fitzgerald is launched from its slipway in River Rouge Michigan. She is the largest of the lake ore freighters to have ever been launched.


June 16 – Budapest - (INN)

Today Imre Nagy was hung for treason against the communist party in Hungary.

After two years as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Hungary, 1953–1955, during which he promoted his "New Course" in Socialism, Nagy fell out of favor with the Soviet Politburo. He was deprived of his Hungarian Central Committee, Politburo, and all other Party functions and on 18 April 1955, he was sacked as Chairman of the Council of Ministers.

Nagy became Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Hungary again, this time by popular demand, during the anti-Soviet revolution in 1956. As soon as he became Chairman he moved toward a multi-party political system.

On 1 November 1956, Nagy announced Hungary's withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact and appealed through the UN for the great powers, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, to recognize Hungary's status as a neutral state. Throughout this period, Nagy remained steadfastly committed to Marxism, but his conception of Marxism was as "a science that cannot remain static", and he railed against the "rigid dogmatism" of "the Stalinist monopoly".

When the revolution was crushed by the Soviet invasion of Hungary, Nagy, with a few others, were given sanctuary in the Yugoslav Embassy. In spite of a written safe conduct of free passage by János Kádár, on 22 November 1956, Nagy was arrested by the Soviet forces as he was leaving the Yugoslav Embassy, and taken to Snagov, Romania.

Our sources have informed us that subsequently, the Soviets returned him to Hungary, where he was secretly charged with organizing the overthrow of the Hungarian people's democratic state and with treason. Nagy was secretly tried, found guilty, and sentenced to death and executed by hanging. His trial and execution were made public only after the sentence had been carried out. According to Fedor Burlatsky, a Kremlin insider, Nikita Khrushchev had Nagy executed, "as a lesson to all other leaders in socialist countries."

Our sources have told us that Nagy was buried, along with his co-defendants, in the prison yard where the executions were carried out, face-down, and with his hands and feet tied with barbed wire.


June 20 – Lima (INN)

The iron barque Omega of Callao, Peru (built in Scotland, 1887), sinks on passage carrying guano from the Pachacamac Islands for Huacho, the world’s last full rigged ship trading under sail alone.


June 27 – Buenos Aires (INN)

The ban against the Peronist Party has been lifted, and is once again legal in Argentina.


June 29 – Sao Paulo (INN)

Brazil beats Sweden 5–2 to win the World Cup.


David Richlen
International Desk, International News Network

_________________
Benno the Mad Wrote:
man, you gotta realise that thor and bos fell out of the patriot tree (like the ugly tree, but instills patriotism instead of ugly) and hit every branch on the way down.


"Gone now, dispersed by the brutal destruction of this one day, was the belief that the Darkman and his army of the dead were so superior as to be invincible. By attempting to destroy the morale of the Marines, the Darkman had restored it to full vigor. Dia De La Muerto had failed in its objectives."
The Gunny: Stand of the 300

Si vis pacem, para bellum
If you want peace, prepare for war

Gunny's color #FF2400


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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 14 Jun 2012 14:39 
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Sergeant Major of the USMC
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Joined: 23 May 2005 16:49
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Top Stories for the month of July, 1958:

Quote:
July 5 – Islamabad (INN)

Today Gasherbrum I, the 11th highest mountain in the world, was first ascended.

Gasherbrum I, also known as Hidden Peak or K5, is the 11th highest peak on Earth, located on the Pakistani–Chinese border in the Gilgit–Baltistan region of Pakistan and Xinjiang region of China. Gasherbrum I is part of the Gasherbrum massif, located in the Karakorum region of the Himalayas. Gasherbrum is often claimed to mean "Shining Wall", presumably a reference to the highly visible face of the neighboring peak Gasherbrum IV, but in fact it comes from "rgasha" (beautiful) + "brum" (mountain) in Balti, hence it actually means "beautiful mountain."

Gasherbrum I was designated as K5, meaning the 5th peak of the Karakorum, by T.G. Montgomerie in 1856 when he first spotted the peaks of the Karakorum from more than 124 miles away during the Great Trigonometric Survey of India. In 1892, William Martin Conway provided the alternate name, Hidden Peak, in reference to its extreme remoteness.

Gasherbrum I was first climbed today by Pete Schoening and Andy Kauffman of an eight-man American expedition led by Nicholas B. Clinch. Richard K. Irvin, Tom Nevison, Tom McCormack, Bob Swift and Gil Roberts were also members of the team.


July 7 - Washington (INN)

President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Alaska Statehood Act into United States law.

Alaska will be the largest state in the United States by area. It is situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent, with Canada to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south, with Russia further west across the Bering Strait. Alaska will be the 4th least populous and the least densely populated of the 49 United States. Approximately half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area.

Alaska was purchased from Russia on March 30th, 1867, for $7.2 million dollars) at approximately two cents per acre. The land went through several administrative changes before becoming an organized territory on May 11, 1912, and will become the 49th state of the U.S. on January 3, 1959.

The name "Alaska" (Аляска) was already introduced in the Russian colonial period, when it was used only for the peninsula and is derived from the Aleut alaxsxaq, meaning "the mainland" or, more literally, "the object towards which the action of the sea is directed". It is also known as Alyeska, the "great land", an Aleut word derived from the same root.

Statehood for Alaska was an important cause of James Wickersham early in his tenure as a congressional delegate. Decades later, the statehood movement gained its first real momentum following a territorial referendum in 1946. The Alaska Statehood Committee and Alaska's Constitutional Convention would soon follow. Statehood supporters also found themselves fighting major battles against political foes, mostly in the U.S. Congress but also within Alaska. Statehood was approved by Congress on today. Alaska will officially be proclaimed a state on January 3, 1959.


July 9 – A 7.5 Richter scale earthquake in Lituya Bay, Alaska, causes a landslide that produces a huge 1719-foot high wave.

The major earthquake that struck on the Fairweather Fault had a Richter scale reading of 7.9 and a maximum perceived intensity of XI (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale,[2] although some sources have reported the magnitude to be as much as 8.3 on the moment magnitude scale.[1] The epicenter of the quake was at latitude 58.6° N, longitude 137.1° W near the Fairweather Range, 7.5 miles (12.1 km) east of the surface trace of the Fairweather fault, and 13 miles (21 km) southeast of Lituya Bay. This earthquake had been the strongest in over 50 years for this region. The Cape Yakataga earthquake, with a reading of 8.2 on the Richter scale, occurred on September 4, 1899.[2] The shock was felt in southeastern Alaska cities over an area of 400,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2), as far south as Seattle, Washington, and as far east as Whitehorse, Y.T., Canada.[4]

The earthquake caused a subaerial rock fall in the Gilbert Inlet.[4] This landslide caused 30 million cubic meters of rock to fall into the bay, creating the megatsunami.[3] Deaths from the event totaled five, with three being killed on Khantaak Island and two having been caught by a wave in the bay.[2] In Yakutat, the only permanent outpost close to the epicenter at the time, infrastructure such as bridges, docks and oil lines all sustained damage. A water tower collapsed and a cabin was also damaged beyond repair. Sand boils and fissures occurred near the coast southeast of there, and underwater cables that supported the Alaska Communication System were cut.[2] Lighter damage was also reported in Pelican and Sitka.

The same topography that leads to the heavy tidal currents also created the highest wave from a tsunami in recorded history. The earthquake caused a landslide in the Crillon Inlet at the head of the bay, generating a massive mega-tsunami measuring 1,719 ft. For comparison, the Empire State Building is 1,470 ft high, including its antenna spire.

The wave possessed sufficient power to snap off all of the trees up to 1,720 feet high around the bay. Most of these were spruce, and most were 6 feet thick. The wave stripped the soil down to the bedrock around the entire bay. There were three fishing boats anchored near the entrance of Lituya Bay on the day the giant wave occurred.

One boat sank and the two people on board were killed. The other two boats were able to ride the waves. Amongst the survivors were Adam Gray, William A. Swanson and Howard G. Ulrich, who each provided accounts of what they observed. Based on Swanson's description of the length of time it took the wave to reach his boat after overtopping Cenotaph Island near the bay's entrance, the wave may have been traveling up to 600 mph. When it reached the open sea, however, it dissipated quickly. This incident was the first direct evidence and eyewitness report of the existence of mega-tsunamis.

The 1,720-foot wave runup at the head of Lituya Bay where the landslide occurred, and the subsequent large waves along the main body of the bay, measuring between 200 to 300 feet high, were caused primarily by an enormous subaerial rockfall into Gilbert Inlet at the head of Lituya Bay, triggered by dynamic earthquake ground motions. The large mass of rock and ice, acting as a monolith, impacted the bottom of the inlet with great force.

The impact created a crater which displaced and folded recent and Tertiary deposits and sedimentary layers. The displaced water and the folding of sediments broke and uplifted 1,300 feet of ice along the entire front of the Lituya Glacier. Also, the impact resulted in a water-splashing action that reached the 1,720-foot elevation on the other side of the inlet. The same rockfall impact, in combination with strong ground movements, the net vertical crustal uplift of about 3.5 feet, and an overall tilting seaward of the entire crustal block on which Lituya Bay was situated, generated the giant wave which swept the main body of the bay.


July 12 - Brussels (INN)

Henri Cornelis has been appointed as Governor-General of the Belgian Congo.


July 15 – Beirut (INN)

It was announced today that 5,000 United States Marines have landed in the capitol of Beirut in order to protect the pro-Western government there.


July 17 – Amman (INN)

It was announced today that the UK has dispatched British paratroopers to Jordan in response to King Hussein's request for assistance against pressure from Iraq.


July 19 - London (INN)

An up and coming band called the Quarrymen, has revealed that they paid 17 shillings and 6 pence to have their first recording session where they could record That'll Be The Day by Buddy Holly and In Spite Of All The Danger by Paul McCartney and George Harrison.


July 20 – Havana (INN)

It has been reported by the Batista Government that various rebel groups in Cuba have joined forces, but they believe the communists are not amongst them.


July 24 – London (INN)

The first life peerage under the Life Peerages Act 1958 is created in the United Kingdom.

The Life Peerages Act of 1958 has established the standards for the creation of life peers by the monarch of the United Kingdom. Life peers are barons and are members of the House of Lords for life, but their titles and membership in the House of Lords are not inherited by their children. Judicial life peers already sat in the House under the terms of the Appellate Jurisdiction Act of 1876.

The Life Peerages Act has vastly increased the ability of the Prime Minister to change the composition of the House of Lords and considerably lessened the dominance of hereditary, part-time, peers.

The Act has allowed for the creation of female peers entitled to sit in the House of Lords. A life peer is created by the Queen by Letters Patent under the Great Seal on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Before the Act was passed, former Prime Ministers were usually created Viscounts or Earls, which are hereditary peerages, in gratitude for their public service in high office.


July 26
In the real world Explorer 4 is launched.


July 26 - London (INN)

Today Elizabeth II has given her son, and heir apparent, the title of The Prince Charles, the customary title of the Prince of Wales.


July 29

In real life the U.S. Congress formally creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).



July 31 – Washington (INN)

It was revealed today that the Tibetan resistance movement against rule by China has been receiving support from the Central Intelligence Agency.

In 1950, the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China (PRC) entered Tibet and the US government made contact with the Dalai Lama's brother Gyalo Thondup who was living in India to offer US help, which was rejected. In May 1951, a delegation representing the Dalai Lama, only 15 years-old at the time, and led by Ngapoi Ngawang Jigmei traveled to Beijing to be presented with the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, which established a PRC suzerainty over Tibet: assuming responsibility for Tibet's external affairs while leaving the domestic governance to the Lhasa government and assuring religious freedoms.

The treaty was signed by the Lhasa delegation and the 10th Panchen Lama, who had already switched his loyalty to the PRC after flirting with the Kuomintang and conspiring against the central Tibetan government, which still refused to recognize him as the true Panchen Llama. Later there would be much controversy over the validity of the agreement stemming from claims it was signed under threat of arms and disagreements about whether the delegates had the authority to sign.

At the time, in Lhasa, the Kutra aristocrats mingled with Chinese officials and even prospered from this association. Mixed parties were thrown throughout the year and even by the Dalai Lama himself. The burden on farmers and peasants with supplying the troops with food led to shortages and rising prices, coupled with influenza and smallpox outbreaks, weighted heavy on the majority of Tibetans, who were only marginally surviving before. Protests called "people's assemblies" began in Lhasa, where organizers sent letters of grievances to the government and posted anti-Chinese slogans in public places. The leaders were promptly arrested and the protests stifled.

In early 1952, Thondup returned to Lhasa with a economic reform plan that would include lowering taxes and land reform. With the Dalai Lama in agreement, Thondup went about implementing the reforms only to meet with strong resistance from the wealthy old guard who labeled him a radical communist. The label sparked the interests of the Chinese who invited him to Beijing to study, but instead he fled back to India, where he began conspiring with the CIA to form and train a Tibetan insurgency. Again the US tried to convince the Dalai Lama to do the same with an offer of "full aid and assistance", but he refused.

The Dalai Lama saw the need to modernize Tibet and was open to Marxism. “It was only when I went to China in 1954-55 that I actually studied Marxist ideology and learned the history of the Chinese revolution. Once I understood Marxism, my attitude changed completely. I was so attracted to Marxism, I even expressed my wish to become a Communist Party member. Tibet at the time was very, very backward. Marxism talked about self-reliance, without depending on a creator or a God. That was very attractive. I still think that if a genuine communist movement had come to Tibet, there would have been much benefit to the people. Instead the Chinese communists brought Tibet so-called liberation. They started destroying monasteries and killing and arresting lamas.” —14th Dalai Lama

Indeed, on the Tibetan leader's journey home from his year in China, Khampa and Amdowa clan leaders informed his chief of staff of their plans to rebel against the Chinese in retribution for land confiscation and attacks on monasteries. But all was relatively quiet in Lhasa and in April, 1956 he received a Chinese delegation to inaugurate the Preparatory Committee for the Autonomous Region of Tibet: a 51 man committee composed mostly of Tibetans.

Meanwhile, open rebellion began with the massacre of a Communist Chinese garrison in Kham, which left an estimated 800 Chinese dead, sparking air strikes that killed hundreds of Tibetans. In addition, the CIA met with the Dalai Lama's two brothers Thubten Jigme Norbu and Gyalo Thondup in India and offered to train a pilot group of six Khampas in guerrilla warfare and radio communications in Saipan. They were smuggled out of Tibet and would later be parachuted back in to train others and to report back to the CIA on the insurgency's progress and needs.

According to the Dalai Lama, his visit to India in November 1956, during which he met with Tibetan freedom fighters, which included two of his elder brothers, "had spoiled good relations with China." The exiles encouraged him to stay and join their fight for independence, but Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru warned him that India could not offer any support. Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai, who was also in Delhi, assured him of Mao's decision to postpone for six years any further reforms in Tibet. Both Nehru and Enlai counciled the Lama to return to Lhasa.

Although the Chinese let up on reforms, they continued military operations in the areas in rebellion causing thousands of refugees to gather around Lhasa. In July 1957, the Dalai Lama hosted a large ceremony in the Potala Palace, during which he accepted a golden throne and petition from representatives of the Chushi Gangdruk movement and in return gave them a blessing touch on their foreheads, and issued them with a talisman.

They would soon become a 5,000 man strong "Defenders of the Faith Volunteer Army" under the leadership of Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang that would struggle against the Chinese for years. However, in September 1957 when the first two CIA trainees dropped into Tibet to deliver a message from the CIA offering support to the Tibetan leader, it was refused. The second drop of four men was disastrous: only one managed to escape alive. Meanwhile, by 1958 Gompo's army was doing quite well taking control of large portions of central Tibet.

Once in exile, the Dalai Lama's discourse changed from cooperative autonomy to independence. He cited the 17 Point Agreement as proof of Tibet's claim to sovereignty, while at the same time he declared it void because the Chinese had violated it and because, he claimed, it had been signed under duress. He also made clear that he was in favor of economic, social, and political reforms, but that the Chinese had not acted in good faith.

Already by July 1958, air drops of arms to the Chushi Gandruk had begun, the CIA had relocated Tibetan guerrilla trainees to Camp Hale in Colorado.


David Richlen
International Desk, International News Network

_________________
Benno the Mad Wrote:
man, you gotta realise that thor and bos fell out of the patriot tree (like the ugly tree, but instills patriotism instead of ugly) and hit every branch on the way down.


"Gone now, dispersed by the brutal destruction of this one day, was the belief that the Darkman and his army of the dead were so superior as to be invincible. By attempting to destroy the morale of the Marines, the Darkman had restored it to full vigor. Dia De La Muerto had failed in its objectives."
The Gunny: Stand of the 300

Si vis pacem, para bellum
If you want peace, prepare for war

Gunny's color #FF2400


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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 15 Jun 2012 13:02 
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Top Stories for the month of August, 1958:

Quote:
August 3 – Washington (INN)

The nuclear powered submarine USS Nautilus becomes the first vessel to cross the North Pole under water.

In response to the ICBM threat posed by Sputnik, President Eisenhower ordered the US Navy to attempt a submarine transit of the North Pole to gain credibility for the SLBM weapons system that is in construction.

On the 25th of April, the Nautilus was underway for the West Coast, now commanded by Commander William R. Anderson, USN. Stopping at San Diego, San Francisco, and Seattle, she began her history-making polar transit, operation "Sunshine", as she departed the latter port on the 9th June. On the 19th of June she entered the Chukchi Sea, but was turned back by deep draft ice in those shallow waters.

On the 28th of June she arrived at Pearl Harbor to await better ice conditions. By the 23rd of July her wait was over, and she set a course northward. She submerged in the Barrow Sea Valley on the 1st of August and on the 3rd of August, at 2315, EDST, she became the first watercraft to reach the geographic North Pole.

The ability to navigate at extreme latitudes and without surfacing was enabled by the technology of the North American Aviation N6A-1 Inertial Navigation System, a naval modification of the N6A used in the Navaho cruise missile. The N6A-1 had been installed on the Nautilus, and is planned for the USS Skate, after initial sea trials on the USS Compass Island in 1957.

From the North Pole, she continued on and after 96 hours and 1,590 nmi under the ice, she surfaced northeast of Greenland, having completed the first successful submerged voyage around the North Pole. The technical details of this mission were planned by scientists from the Naval Electronics Laboratory including Dr. Waldo Lyon who accompanied Nautilus as chief scientist and ice pilot.

Navigation beneath the arctic ice sheet is difficult. Above 85°N both magnetic compasses and normal gyrocompasses become inaccurate. A special gyrocompass built by the Sperry Rand Corporation was installed shortly before the journey. There was a risk that the submarine would become disoriented beneath the ice and that the crew would have to play "longitude roulette". Commander Anderson had considered using torpedoes to blow a hole in the ice if the submarine needed to surface.

As mentioned above, the most difficult part of the journey was in the Bering Strait. The ice extended as much as 60 feet below sea level. During the initial attempt to go through the Bering Strait, there was insufficient room between the ice and the sea bottom. During the second, successful attempt to pass through the Bering passage, the submarine passed through a known channel close to Alaska, this was not the first choice since the submarine commander wanted to avoid detection.

The trip beneath the ice cap was an important boost to American pride after the late entry into the space race, since all of the other participants have no nuclear submarines of their own. During the address announcing the journey the president mentioned that one day nuclear cargo submarines might use that route for trade.

Proceeding from Greenland to the Isle of Portland, England, she received the Presidential Unit Citation, the first ever issued in peace time, from American Ambassador J.H. Whitney, and then set a westerly course, which put her into the Thames River estuary at New London on the 29th of October. Captain Anderson would also be awarded the Legion of Merit by President Eisenhower. For the remainder of the year the Nautilus will operate from her home port, New London, Connecticut.


August 6 – Dublin (INN)

Australian athlete Herb Elliott clips almost three seconds off the world record for the mile run at Santry Stadium, Dublin, recording a time of 3 minutes 54.5 seconds.


August 14 – Stockholm (INN)

A 4-engine Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation aircraft belonging to KLM crashes into the sea with 99 people on board.


August 17

In Real Life the first Thor-Able rocket is launched, carrying Pioneer 0, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 17. The launch fails due to a first stage malfunction.


August 18 - London (INN)

Brojen Das from East Pakistan swims across the English Channel in a competition, as the first Bangali as well as the first Asian to ever do it. He is first among 39 competitors.


August 23 - Taipei (INN)

Today the People's Republic of CHina has instigated the Second Taiwan Strait crisis with the PLA's bombardment of Quemoy.

The crisis started with the 823rd Artillery Bombardment at 5:30pm today, when the People's Liberation Army forces began an intense artillery bombardment against Quemoy. RoC forces in Quemoy dug in and returned fire. In the heavy exchange of fire, roughly 2,500 RoC troops and 2000 PLA troops were killed.

This was a continuation of the First Taiwan Strait Crisis, which had started immediately after the Korean War. Chiang Kai-shek had begun to build on the two islands of Matsu and Quemoy. In 1954, the PRC began firing artillery at both the islands of Quemoy and Matsu focusing most of the attack on Quemoy.

President Eisenhower responded to the RoC's request for aid according to its obligations in the 1954 U.S.-ROC defense treaty by reinforcing US naval units and ordering US naval vessels to help the Kuomintang Nationalist government protect Quemoy's supply lines. Under a secret effort known as Operation Black Magic, the US Navy modified some RoC air force F-86 Sabres with its newly introduced AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missile to provide an edge against the more advanced PRC MiG fighters, which had an advantage over the Sabre.

Also, 12 203mm long range artillery platforms and other 155mm tubes were transferred from US Marines to RoC Army and sent to Quemoy/Kinman to help turn the tide of the artillery duel there.

There is a report that the Soviet Union has dispatched its foreign minister, Andrei Gromyko, to Beijing to discuss China's actions.


August 23 - Washington (INN)

President of the United States Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Federal Aviation Act, transferring all authority over aviation in the USA to the newly created Federal Aviation Agency, FAA.

Aviation in the United States was unregulated until the Air Commerce Act became law in 1926. The Act created an Aeronautic Branch within the United States Department of Commerce with regulatory powers over civil aviation. Amongst the functions the Aeronautic Branch performed were pilot testing and licensing, issuing aircraft airworthiness certificates, and establishing and enforcing safety regulations. The agency was also responsible for establishing airways and operating and maintaining aids to air navigation, in addition to investigating accidents and incidents.

In 1934, the Aeronautics Branch was renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce. In 1936 the Bureau took over air traffic control centers previously operated by commercial airlines, and began to expand the air traffic control system.

In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act moved oversight of non-military aviation into a new, independent agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority. The new agency gained the authority and the power to regulate fares and routes for commercial airlines. Another change followed in 1940, with the CAA's authority being split. The CAA continued to have authority for air traffic control, safety, and promotion of civil aviation. The new Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) was established and had responsibility for accident investigation, as well as regulation of safety of civil aviation and pricing of commercial aviation.

In 1956, President Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed Edward Peck Curtis as the Special Assistant for Aviation. Later that year Curtis was named by Eisenhower to head a commission to study the dramatic increase in airline traffic and to propose ways to deal with airplane traffic jams at airports.

From that commission came a proposal to create a new Federal aviation agency that would replace the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Civil Aeronautics Board to consolidate air operations, modernize the airways, and to make and enforce safety rules.

On the morning of June 30th, 1956, United Flight 718 collided with TWA Flight 2 over the Grand Canyon, resulting in 128 deaths, which was at the time the largest loss of life in an aviation accident. This high profile accident, which took place in uncontrolled airspace, raised public concerns for airline safety. In 1957 Congress passed the Airways Modernization Act that established the Airways Modernization Board (AMB) headed by General Elwood Quesada.

Two subsequent mid-air collisions between military aircraft and commercial airliners, one near Las Vegas, Nevada, United Airlines Flight 736, on April 21st, 1958, where 49 died, and one involving Capital Airlines over Brunswick, Maryland a month later on May 20th that cost 11 lives, showed further imperfections in the regulation of air traffic, particularly the need for unified control of airspace for civil and military flights.

The day after the Brunswick collision, Senator Mike Monroney and Representative Oren Harris introduced the Federal Aviation Act. Two days after the Capital Airlines mid-air, a stopgap presidential proclamation was issued that:
1. Required military jet aircraft to fly by Instrument Flight Rules while in the civil airways below 25,000 ft.
2. Prohibited jet penetration swoops from high to low altitudes through civil airways. An exception was made for emerency jet-bomber and fighter "scrambles," which would be continued whenever necessary for the national defense.

Citing recent midair collisions of aircraft occasioning tragic losses of human life, President Eisenhower announced the White House's support for the legislation on June 13th. The legislation passed Congress and was signed into law by PresidentEisenhower today. President Eisenhower appointed AMB Chairman Quesada as the first FAA Administrator.


August 30 – London

Reports indicate that riots between blacks and whites in Notting Hill, London have broken out. The sentencing of the nine white youths arrested during the riots have recieved a harsh punishment, to act as a deterrent to others. Each of the youths received five years in prison and they were to also pay £500 in fines.


David Richlen
International Desk, International News Network


Attachments:
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_________________
Benno the Mad Wrote:
man, you gotta realise that thor and bos fell out of the patriot tree (like the ugly tree, but instills patriotism instead of ugly) and hit every branch on the way down.


"Gone now, dispersed by the brutal destruction of this one day, was the belief that the Darkman and his army of the dead were so superior as to be invincible. By attempting to destroy the morale of the Marines, the Darkman had restored it to full vigor. Dia De La Muerto had failed in its objectives."
The Gunny: Stand of the 300

Si vis pacem, para bellum
If you want peace, prepare for war

Gunny's color #FF2400
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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 18 Jun 2012 11:31 
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Quote:
September 27 - Cape Canaveral (INN)

Director Dickinson, Director of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) gave a press conference today about the launches scheduled for the 1st and 20th of this month.

"On September 1st, the United States launched Explorer 7. The satellite was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida at 15:36:00 UTC by a Juno II rocket to an orbit of 356 miles perigee by 667 miles apogee, with an inclination of 50.27°.

"It is designed to measure solar x-ray and Lyman-alpha flux, trapped energetic particles, with a heavy primary on cosmic rays. Also, the secondary objectives include collecting data on micro-meteoroid penetration, molecular sputtering, and studying the earth-atmosphere heat balance.

"On September 20th, Ham, a male chimpanzee, was secured in a Project Mercury mission capsule labeled MR-4 and launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a sub-orbital flight. Ham had his vital signs and tasks monitored using computers on Earth.

The capsule suffered a partial loss of pressure during the flight, but Ham's EVA suit prevented him from suffering any harm.

Ham's lever-pushing performance in space was only a fraction of a second slower than on Earth, demonstrating that tasks could be performed in space. Ham's capsule splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean and was recovered by a rescue ship later that day. He only suffered a bruised nose.

His flight was 16 minutes and 39 seconds long."



Below are the statistics on the rockets and satellite:

The Juno-II is an orbital satellite launcher derived from the Jupiter IRBM. It is a basic four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x S-3D, 11 x Sergeants Cluster stage, 3 x Sergeants Cluster stage, 1 Sergeant

Size

Height: 78.7 feet
Diameter: 8.76 feet
Mass: 121,500 lbs
Stages: 4

Capacity

Payload to LEO: 90 lbs

Performance

First Stage: Jupiter
Engines: 1x Rocketdyne S3-D
Thrust: 170,563 lbf
Specific Impulse: 282 s
Burn Time: 182 s
Fuel: LOX / Kerosene

Second Stage: Sergeant Cluster
Engines: 11x Sergeant motors
Thrust: 1,497 lbf Each
Specific Impulse: 285 s
Burn Time: 6 s
Fuel: Solid - polysulfide-aluminum and ammonium perchlorate

Third Stage: Sergeant Cluster
Engines: 3x Sergeant Motors
Thrust: 1,497 lbf Each
Specific Impulse: 285 s
Burn Time: 6 s
Fuel: Solid - polysulfide-aluminum and ammonium perchlorate

Fourth Stage: Sergeant
Engines: 1x Sergeant Motor
Thrust: 1,497 lbf
Specific Impulse: 285 s
Burn Time: 6 s
Fuel: Solid - polysulfide-aluminum and ammonium perchlorate


The Redstone is a Sub-Orbital launcher. It is a basic single stage vehicle consisting of 1 Rocketdyne A-6 motor.

Size

Height: 83.38 feet
Diameter: 5.83 feet
Mass: 66,000 lbs
Stages: 1

Capacity

Payload to Sub-Orbital: 4,000 lbs

Performance

First Stage: Redstone
Engines: 1x Rocketdyne A-6
Thrust: 82,595 lbf
Specific Impulse: 265 s
Burn Time: 155 s
Fuel: LOX / Alcohol


Explorer-7

Operator: NASA
Major contractors: Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Mission type: Earth science
Launch date: September 1, 1958 at 15:36:00 UTC
Launch vehicle: Juno-II
Mass: 90 lbs

Orbital elements

Eccentricity: 0.034693
Inclination: 50.27°
Apoapsis: 667 miles
Periapsis: 356 miles
Orbital period: 101.38 minutes


Raymond Roberts
Science Desk, International News Netowrk


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_________________
Benno the Mad Wrote:
man, you gotta realise that thor and bos fell out of the patriot tree (like the ugly tree, but instills patriotism instead of ugly) and hit every branch on the way down.


"Gone now, dispersed by the brutal destruction of this one day, was the belief that the Darkman and his army of the dead were so superior as to be invincible. By attempting to destroy the morale of the Marines, the Darkman had restored it to full vigor. Dia De La Muerto had failed in its objectives."
The Gunny: Stand of the 300

Si vis pacem, para bellum
If you want peace, prepare for war

Gunny's color #FF2400
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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 18 Jun 2012 12:01 
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Top Stories for the month of September, 1958:


Quote:
September 1 – London (INN)

The fishing dispute between the UK and Iceland has eurpted into the Cod War.

The Cod War began as soon as a new Icelandic law that expanded the Icelandic fishery zone from 4 nautical miles (nmi) to 12 nmi, came into force at midnight on the 1st of September.

The British declared that their trawlers would fish under protection from their warships in three areas, out of the Westfjords, north of Horn and to the southeast of Iceland. All in all, 20 British trawlers, 4 warships and a supply vessel are inside the newly declared zones. This deployment is expected to be expensive. Against this Iceland could deploy seven Patrol vessels and a single PBY-6A Catalina flying boat


September 12 – Dallas (INN)

Jack Kilby has invented the first integrated circuit.

Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949, when the German engineer Werner Jacobi, Siemens AG, filed a patent for an integrated circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device showing five transistors on a common substrate arranged in a 2-stage amplifier arrangement. Jacobi disclosed that small, and cheap, hearing aids would be typical industrial applications of his patent. A commercial use of his patent to date has not been reported.

The idea of the integrated circuit was conceived by a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the British Ministry of Defence, Geoffrey W.A. Dummer. Dummer presented the idea to the public at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington, D.C. on the 7th of May 1952. He gave many symposia publicly to propagate his ideas, and unsuccessfully attempted to build such a circuit in 1956.

A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic squares (wafers), each one containing a single miniaturized component. Components could then be integrated and wired into a bi-dimensional, or tridimensional compact grid. This idea, which looked very promising in 1957, was proposed to the US Army by Jack Kilby, and led to the short-lived Micromodule Program, which was similar to 1951's Project Tinkertoy. However, as the project was gaining momentum, Kilby came up with a new, revolutionary design: the IC.

Kurt Lehovec of Sprague Electric must be credited for the principle of p-n junction isolation caused by the action of a biased p-n junction, the diode, as a key concept behind the IC.


Newly employed by Texas Instruments, Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July of 1958, successfully demonstrating the first working integrated example on the 12th of September. In his patent application, Kilby describes his new device as “a body of semiconductor material... wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are completely integrated.” The first customer for the new invention is expected to be the US Air Force.


September 14 – Bonn (INN)

Two rockets designed by German engineer Ernst Mohr, which are the first German post-war rockets, reached the upper atmosphere today.


September 27 – Tokyo (INN)

Today Typhoon Ida has killed at least 1,269 in Honshū, Japan.

On September 20th, Tropical Storm Ida formed in the central Western Pacific. It moved to the west, rapidly strengthening to a 115 mph typhoon by the next day. On the 22nd Ida turned to the north and quickly intensified, reaching super typhoon status on the 23rd and peak winds of 200 mph on the 24th. Such winds are speculative, due to the lack of quality measurements, but Ida was likely a formidable typhoon with a record low pressure of 877 millibars.

Ida weakened as it continued to the north-northeast, and made landfall on southeastern Honshū with winds of 80 mph on the 26th. It became extra-tropical the next day, and dissipated on the 28th to the east of the country. Ida caused torrential flooding to southeastern Japan, resulting in over 1,900 mudslides. Damage along the coastline was extensive, including two small villages that were washed away completely. Nearly 500,000 were left homeless, 888 were killed, 496 were injured, and 381 were missing from the storm.


September 28 – Paris (INN)

In France, a majority of 79% of the vote says yes to the constitution of the Fifth Republic.

On the 28th of September of this year, a referendum passed which adopted changes to the French Constitution which mainly dealt with changes to the office of the President, moving the French from a parliamentary system to a new semi-presidential system in which both the office of the President and Prime Minister participate in governance of the state.


September 30 – Washington (INN)

The Pentagon reported today that the U.S.S.R. has detonated a nuclear device on the island of Novaya Zemlya. The Soviet Ambassador could not be reached for comment.


David Richlen
International Desk, International News Network


Attachments:
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Kilby_solid_circuit.jpg [ 45.55 KiB | Viewed 3798 times ]

_________________
Benno the Mad Wrote:
man, you gotta realise that thor and bos fell out of the patriot tree (like the ugly tree, but instills patriotism instead of ugly) and hit every branch on the way down.


"Gone now, dispersed by the brutal destruction of this one day, was the belief that the Darkman and his army of the dead were so superior as to be invincible. By attempting to destroy the morale of the Marines, the Darkman had restored it to full vigor. Dia De La Muerto had failed in its objectives."
The Gunny: Stand of the 300

Si vis pacem, para bellum
If you want peace, prepare for war

Gunny's color #FF2400
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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 19 Jun 2012 10:48 
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Quote:
October 1 - Cape Canaveral (INN)

Cape Canaveral, Florida -- Director Dickinson, Director of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) gave a press conference today about the launch scheduled for the 1st of this month.

"On October 1st, Enos, a male chimpanzee, was secured in a Project Mercury mission capsule labeled MA-5 and launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on an orbital flight. Enos had his vital signs and tasks monitored using the computers on Earth.

"The Mercury-Atlas 5 was launched from Complex 14 at Cape Canaveral on a heading of 72.51 degrees east of north. Orbital insertion of the Mercury spacecraft occured 480 miles (770 km) from Cape Canaveral.

"The spacecraft was placed in an orbit with a perigee of 86.4 Miles (160.1 km), an Apogee of 128.1 Miles (237.2 km), with a speed of 25,695 feet per second (7.832 m/s) where it made three orbits of the planet before retrofire.

"Retrofire took place at 4 hours, 32 minutes, and 26 seconds after launch. The spacecraft landed 21 minutes and 49 seconds after retrofire. Re-entry temperatures reached 3,000 °F (1,650 °C) on the heatshield, 2,000 °F (1,090 °C) on the antenna housing, 1,080 °F (582 °C) on the cylindrical section, and 1,260 °F (682 °C) on the conical section. The spent Atlas sustainer motor re-entered the atmosphere after 9⅓ orbits.

"Enos' lever-pushing performance in orbit was only a fraction of a second slower than on Earth, demonstrating that tasks could be performed while in orbit."


Raymond Roberts
Science Desk, International News Network

Below are the statistics on the rocket:

The Atlas LV-3b is an orbital satellite launcher derived from the Atlas ICBM. It is a basic stage and a half vehicle consisting of 1 x Atlas MA-2 Stage and 1 x Atlas D Stage

Size

Height: 82 feet
Diameter: 16 feet
Mass: 255,900 lbs
Stages: 1.5

Capacity

Payload to LEO: 2998.29 lbs

Performance

First Stage: Atlas MA-2
Engines: 2x Rocketdyne XLR89-5 motors
Thrust: 170,563 lbf each
Specific Impulse: 282 s
Burn Time: 135 s
Fuel: RP-1 / LOX

Stage 1.5: Atlas D
Engines: 1x Rocketdyne XLR105-5 motor
Thrust: 81,651 lbf
Specific Impulse: 309 s
Burn Time: 335 s
Fuel: RP-1 / LOX


Attachments:
Enos Prep.jpg
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Atlas_D_with_Mercury-Atlas-1.jpg
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_________________
Benno the Mad Wrote:
man, you gotta realise that thor and bos fell out of the patriot tree (like the ugly tree, but instills patriotism instead of ugly) and hit every branch on the way down.


"Gone now, dispersed by the brutal destruction of this one day, was the belief that the Darkman and his army of the dead were so superior as to be invincible. By attempting to destroy the morale of the Marines, the Darkman had restored it to full vigor. Dia De La Muerto had failed in its objectives."
The Gunny: Stand of the 300

Si vis pacem, para bellum
If you want peace, prepare for war

Gunny's color #FF2400
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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 19 Jun 2012 11:21 
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Top Stories for the month of October 1958:

Quote:
October 1 - Washington (INN)

It was announced today that Tunisia and Morocco will be joining the Arab League, along with Egypt and Syria.


October 2 – Conarky (INN)

Today Guinea has declared itself independent from France.

Guinea, officially the People's Revolutionary Republic of Guinea, is located in West Africa. Formerly known as French Guinea (Guinée française), it has a population of 6,057,975 and an area of 94,981 sq mi. Forming a crescent as it curves from its western border on the Atlantic Ocean toward the east and the south, it shares its northern border with Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Mali, and its southern border with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Côte d'Ivoire. The Niger River's source is in the Guinea Highlands in southeastern Guinea.

Ahmed Sékou Touré became President upon Guinea's independence, and is expected to establish a one-party dictatorship, with a closed, socialized economy and no tolerance for human rights, free expression, or political opposition, which is expected to be ruthlessly suppressed. The new nation has been named the People's Revolutionary Republic of Guinea.

The new nation hasd already begun the collectivization of the nation's farmis and other production. Imposition of price controls are expected to follow shortly. Touré has stated that he will rely on his own Malinke ethnic group to fill the positions in the party and government. Touré's party officials are expected to take over all aspects of social and economic life. A police and intelligence has been reported to be in the process of being set up.


October 4 – London (INN)

BOAC uses the new De Havilland Comet jets, to become the first airline to fly jet passenger services across the Atlantic.


October 4 - Paris (INN)

Today, the new French constitution has been adopted, officially ending the French Fourth Republic and inaugurating the new Fifth Republic. René Coty officially remains President, but likely not for much longer. Many French publications already describe the President as a "lame duck" and predict that the President's days in power are numbered, although it is also argued by many that the French president had very little power to begin with, and his own ineffectual manner only enhanced that.

Many are predicting that the Prime Minister, war hero Charles de Gaulle, will rise to the presidency in the new year. Already ruling by decree after an act of the French parliament after constitutional conventions were formed on June 3rd.

Two days after his appointment as Prime Minister, de Gaulle is the de facto leader of the French Government, rising to power in the heat of the massive crisis in Algeria that already threatens to rend the French colony from French control.

Called by some a Civil War, by others a Civil Disturbance, and by many U.S. State Department officials as a failed "Coup d'Etat" by de Gaulle supporters in the Algerian government, what is clear is that Algeria has changed the face of French politics forever.

Faced with the May Algerian Crisis, many criticized the government as ineffective and unworkable. Now with a new constitution, perhaps the Fifth Republic will weather the crisis better than the Fourth, organized in the turbulent wake of World War II.


October 6 - London (INN)

Our sources have reported to us that today, the Icelandic V/s María Júlía fired three shots at the trawler Kingston Emerald, forcing the trawler to escape to sea. The British Admiralty is reported to be taking steps to better protect British fishing vessels.


October 9 – Vatican City (INN)

It was announced today that Pope Pius XII has died, and the Cardinals have gathered to elect his replacement.


October 11

In the real world Pioneer 1, the second and most successful of the 3 project Able space probes, becomes the first spacecraft launched by the newly formed NASA.


October 21 – London (INN)

The Life Peerages Act has entitled women to sit in the British House of Lords for the first time. The Baronesses Swanborough (Stella Isaacs, Marchioness of Reading) and Wooton (Barbara Wooton) are the first to take their seats.


October 28 – Vatican City (INN)

It was announced today that the Cardinals have elected the replacement for Pope Pius XII, and that man will be Pope John XXIII, the 261st pope.


David Richlen
International Desk, International News Network


Attachments:
GuineaMap.png
GuineaMap.png [ 10.6 KiB | Viewed 3788 times ]

_________________
Benno the Mad Wrote:
man, you gotta realise that thor and bos fell out of the patriot tree (like the ugly tree, but instills patriotism instead of ugly) and hit every branch on the way down.


"Gone now, dispersed by the brutal destruction of this one day, was the belief that the Darkman and his army of the dead were so superior as to be invincible. By attempting to destroy the morale of the Marines, the Darkman had restored it to full vigor. Dia De La Muerto had failed in its objectives."
The Gunny: Stand of the 300

Si vis pacem, para bellum
If you want peace, prepare for war

Gunny's color #FF2400
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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 20 Jun 2012 10:19 
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Quote:
November 1st - Cape Canaveral (INN)

Cape Caneveral, Florida -- Director Dickinson of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) announced today that the first Americans to go into space have been chosen.

"Our selection process had to be very specific because of the small space inside the Mercury spacecraft. Due to this the candidates could be no taller than 5 feet 11 inches and weigh no more than 180 pounds. Other requirements included an age under 40, a bachelor's degree or equivalent, 1,500 hours of flying time, and a qualification to fly jets.

"After an advertisement amongst military test pilots drew more than 500 applications, NASA began their search of military personnel records and identified 110 pilots, five Marines, forty-seven from the Navy, and fifty-eight from the Air Force, who were qualified and fit their requirements. Sixty-nine candidates were brought to Washington DC, in two groups; the candidates' interest was so great, despite the extensive physical and mental exams that the agency did not summon the last group.

The tests included spending hours on treadmills and tilt tables, submerging their feet in ice water, three doses of castor oil, and five enemas. Six candidates were rejected as too tall for the planned spacecraft. Another thirty-three failed or dropped out during the first phase of exams. Four more refused to take part in the second round of tests, which eliminated eight more candidates, leaving 18.

From the 18, the first ten NASA astronauts were chosen, each a 'superb physical specimen' with genius-level IQs, and the ability to function well both as part of a team and solo.

"I present the NASA Astronaut 10:

Raymond Roberts
Science Desk, International News Network

Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr
Shepard was born in Derry, New Hampshire to Lt. Col. Alan B. Shepard, Sr. and Renza (née Emerson) Shepard. He attended primary and secondary schools in East Derry and Derry. He was one of many famous descendants of Mayflower passenger Richard Warren.
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Virgil Ivan 'Gus' Grissom
Grissom was born in Mitchell, Indiana on April 3, 1926, the second child of Dennis and Cecile King Grissom. His father was a signalman for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and his mother a homemaker. His older sister died shortly before his birth, and he was followed by three younger siblings, Wilma, Norman and Lowell.
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John Herschel Glenn, Jr
John Glenn was born in Cambridge, Ohio, to John Herschel Glenn Sr. and Teresa (née Sproat). He was raised in New Concord, Ohio. Glenn studied mathematics at Muskingum College, and received his private pilot's license as physics course credit in 1941.
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Malcolm Scott Carpenter
Born in Boulder, Carpenter moved to New York City with his parents (Marion Scott Carpenter and Florence [née Noxon] Carpenter) for the first two years of his life. His father had been awarded a postdoctoral research post at Columbia University. In the summer of 1927, young Carpenter returned to Boulder with his mother, then ill with tuberculosis. He was raised by his maternal grandparents in the family home at the corner of Aurora Avenue and Seventh Street, until his graduation from Boulder High School in 1943.
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Walter Marty (Wally) Schirra, Jr
Schirra came from an aviation family in Hackensack, New Jersey. Schirra's father, Walter M. Schirra, Sr., who was born in Philadelphia, went to Canada during World War I and earned his pilot rating. He later became a barnstormer. Schirra's mother, Florence Leach Schirra, went along on her husband's barnstorming tours and performed wing walking stunts. By the time he was 15, Wally was flying his father's airplane. Schirra was a Boy Scout and earned the rank of First Class in Troop 36 in Oradell, New Jersey.
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Wally-Schirra.jpg
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Leroy Gordon Cooper, Jr
Cooper was born in Shawnee, Oklahoma. He grew up there and later moved to Murray, Kentucky where he attended public schools. He was active in the Boy Scouts of America and achieved the second highest rank of Life Scout. In 1945 Cooper turned down the possibility of a football scholarship to enlist in the Marine Corps but was too late to see combat in the Second World War.
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Gordon_Cooper.jpg
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Donald Kent (Deke) Slayton
Slayton was born on a farm near Sparta, Wisconsin. A childhood farm equipment accident left him with a severed left ring finger. He attended elementary school in Leon, Wisconsin and graduated from Sparta High School. He entered the United States Army Air Forces as a cadet in 1942, training as a B-25 bomber pilot. He flew 56 combat missions with the 340th Bombardment Group over Europe during World War II and later flew seven combat missions over Japan in a Douglas A-26 Invader as part of the 319th Bombardment Group.
Attachment:
Donald_K_Slayton.jpg
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Iven Carl (Kinch) Kincheloe, Jr
Kincheloe was born in Detroit, Michigan but grew up in Cassopolis, Michigan. He was interested in aircraft from a very young age. He attended Purdue University, where he majored in aeronautical engineering, joined the ROTC and was a member of Sigma Phi Epsilon-Indiana Alpha fraternity. In the summer of 1948, the ROTC cadet was able to meet Chuck Yeager and sit in the cockpit of the Bell X-1.
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Iven_Kincheloe.jpg
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Robert Aitken Rushworth
Rushworth was born in Madison, Maine on October 9, 1924. He studied mechanical engineering at the University of Maine, receiving a BE in 1951. He received a BS in aeronautical engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology in 1957.
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Joseph Albert (Joe) Walker
Walker was born in Washington, Pennsylvania, Walker graduated from the Trinity High School. He earned his bachelor's degree in physics from the Washington and Jefferson College before entering the U.S. Army Air Forces. During World War II, Walker flew the Lockheed P-38 Lightning fighter and F-5A photo aircraft (a modified P-38) on weather reconnaissance flights. Walker earned the Distinguished Flying Cross once, awarded by General Nathan Twining in July 1944 and the Air Medal with seven oak leaf clusters.
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Attachments:
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_________________
Benno the Mad Wrote:
man, you gotta realise that thor and bos fell out of the patriot tree (like the ugly tree, but instills patriotism instead of ugly) and hit every branch on the way down.


"Gone now, dispersed by the brutal destruction of this one day, was the belief that the Darkman and his army of the dead were so superior as to be invincible. By attempting to destroy the morale of the Marines, the Darkman had restored it to full vigor. Dia De La Muerto had failed in its objectives."
The Gunny: Stand of the 300

Si vis pacem, para bellum
If you want peace, prepare for war

Gunny's color #FF2400
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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 20 Jun 2012 11:43 
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Top Stories for the month of November 1958:

Quote:
November 3rd – Paris (INN)

The new UNESCO building is inaugurated in Paris today.


November 18 - Rogers City (INN)

Rogers City, Michigan -- The SS Carl D. Bradley sinks in a storm on Lake Michigan, killing 33 of the 35 crewmen on board.

The Bradley met its fate while en route to the Port of Calcite, the harbor in Rogers City, Michigan. The previous day she had unloaded a cargo of crushed limestone at Gary, Indiana. She was originally scheduled to head to the Manitowoc shipyard after the Gary run but the company added another trip at the last minute. She departed empty on her final voyage on November 17 at 10:00 p.m. with 9,000 US gallons (7,500 imp gal) in her ballast tanks for stability. The winds were 25 to 35 miles per hour at the start of her trip.

The weather forecast was for a gale with 50 to 65 mile per hour southerly winds eventually changing to southwest. The Bradley's path took it into the lethal storm that was the result of two separate weather patterns merging. Tucson, Arizona had record a 6.4 inches of snowfall, Nevada's temperatures plummeted to below freezing, a line of thirty tornadoes extended from Texas to Illinois, nearly 2 feet of snow fell in Wyoming, and more than a 1 foot of snow fell on North and South Dakota.

Captain Roland Bryan was known as a 'heavy weather captain' who took pride in delivering his cargo on time. Bryan's usual course up Lake Michigan was quicker and ran closer to the Michigan shore than most. He avoided the brunt of the building seas by instead traveling 5 to 12 miles along the lee of the Wisconsin shore. He planned a course with his first and second mate that would take them to Cana Island near the Wisconsin shore and then they would turn at Lansing Shoal near the Beaver Island group. Although the seas gathered strength from the southwest, they were not considered severe and she was riding smoothly.

Two ships were running parallel with the Bradley when she passed Milwaukee, Wisconsin at 4:00 a.m. The Bradley reduced her speed sometime prior to 4:00 p.m. to 14 to 15 miles per hour. By 4:00 p.m, she was past Poverty Island with the Captain in charge of navigation and the First Mate on watch. Winds were from the southwest at a full gale force with winds at 60 to 65 miles per hour. The Bradley was riding comfortably with a heavy following sea slightly on the starboard quarter.

At 5:35 p.m. the ship was about 12 miles southwest of Gull Island. At this moment a loud thud was heard followed by a vibration. The first mate turned aft and saw the stern of the vessel sagging. The captain slammed the engine's telegraph to stop engines and sounded the alarm to abandon ship. As the ship broke in two, he shouted at the crew on deck to run and don their life jackets. The first mate managed to radio transmissions of mayday and give their position before the power lines aboard the ship were severed. The distress call was picked up by the Coast Guard, and amateur and commercial stations on land and sea.

The Bradley had one life raft stored in the bow section and two life boats stored in the stern section. The crew in the stern section attempted to lower the lifeboats. One lifeboat became entangled in cables and the other lifeboat dangled at an impossible angle for launching or boarding. The life raft was tossed clear of the wreck when the bow section sank. The four crew members who reached the life raft were repeatedly thrown off by the huge waves and only two survived.

It is reported that the crew of the German cargo vessel, the Christian Sartori, witnessed the sinking of the Bradley through their binoculars. They saw the lights go out on the fore part of the ship while the aft end of the ship remained lit. Then they saw the lights on the aft end go out so that the silhouette of the ship remained barely visible. A short time later they heard an explosion and saw a red, yellow, and white column of flame. They "concluded that the Bradley had exploded".

After witnessing the Bradley explosion, the Sartori immediately altered course for the Bradley's location but the wind and waves were so fierce that it took her one and one-half hours to traverse the 4 miles that separated the vessels. The Plum Island Coast Guard station deployed a 36 foot boat within minutes of the Bradley sinking. The crew was unable to steer or make any headway in the storm and was forced to seek the shelter of nearby Washington Island.

The USCG Cutter Sundew from Charlevoix, Michigan was dispatched into the open lake in the pounding seas of an unremitting gale. She arrived at the search area at 10:40 p.m. on November 19th, 5 hrs after the Bradley sank. Coast Guard Station Charlevoix also launched a 36 foot motor lifeboat in an attempt to reach the Bradley, but this was ordered back after being mercilessly tossed about on Lake Michigan.

The USCG Cutter Hollyhock from Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin arrived on the search scene at 1:30 a.m. on November 19th after a 7 hour trip that her skipper described as "a visit to hell." During the night friends and family members of the Bradley crew drove from Rogers City and the surrounding towns to Charlevoix where any survivors would arrive. They kept vigil by lining the beach at Charlevoix with their car headlights turned on. Eight other commercial vessels joined the search at daybreak. U.S. Coast Guard air and surface units searched for survivors throughout the following days.

At 8:37 a.m. on November 19th, the Sundew located the Bradley's forward life raft 15 hours after the Bradley sank and 17 miles from the site of the sinking. Two survivors were on the raft — First Mate Elmer H. Fleming, 43, and Deck Watchman Frank L. Mays, 26. Another crew member from the Bradley, deckwatch Gary Strelecki, was also found alive, but died not long after being rescued.

The two survivors said that they fired two of the three signal flares stored on the life raft not long after the Bradley sank. When they tried to fire the remaining flare, it was wet and would not fire when the Sartori passed within 100 yards without seeing them. Mays reported that his cork-filled life jacket kept him buoyed but he had to hold it down just keep it on due to the force of the waves. He knew that he had to find something to hold onto in order to survive.

During the day, the Sundew and other vessels recovered 17 more bodies, all wearing lifejackets. The bodies were brought to Charlevoix City Hall for family identification. More lifejackets were found laced up, indicating that they may have slipped off while they were worn. In all, of the 35 crewmen, 33 lost their lives.


November 22 – Canberra (INN)

The Menzies government in Australia is re-elected for a fifth term.


November 25 – Paris (INN)

Today French Sudan gains autonomy as a self-governing member of the French colonial empire.

French Sudan was created as a French territory on 9 September 1880, as Upper Senegal, and was renamed the French Sudan Territory on 18 August 1890, with its capital at Kayes. On 10 October 1899, French Sudan was broken up; 11 southern provinces went to French Guinea, the Côte d'Ivoire and Dahomey, although two were returned in the following year.

In 1902 the parts of the colony not organized into military districts became Senegambia and Niger, then Upper Senegal and Niger in 1904, then the old name came back in a reorganization of 1920.

When the French Upper Volta was first abolished in 1933 (it was reestablished in 1947), French Sudan gained some of its provinces.

After the French constitutional referendum of 4 October 1958, the République Soudanaise became a member of the French Community, once again with the name French Sudan, and gained complete internal autonomy.


November 28 – Paris (NN)

Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French colonial empire.

Following the revision of the French constitution that established the Fifth Republic, the AEF (Afrique équatoriale française) was dissolved and its constituent parts reformed into autonomous colonies within the French Community. During these reforms Chad, the Middle Congo, which will become known as the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon became autonomous republics.


November 30 – Paris (INN)

Gaullists win the French parliamentary election.


David Richlen
International Desk, International News Network

_________________
Benno the Mad Wrote:
man, you gotta realise that thor and bos fell out of the patriot tree (like the ugly tree, but instills patriotism instead of ugly) and hit every branch on the way down.


"Gone now, dispersed by the brutal destruction of this one day, was the belief that the Darkman and his army of the dead were so superior as to be invincible. By attempting to destroy the morale of the Marines, the Darkman had restored it to full vigor. Dia De La Muerto had failed in its objectives."
The Gunny: Stand of the 300

Si vis pacem, para bellum
If you want peace, prepare for war

Gunny's color #FF2400


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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 21 Jun 2012 08:14 
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Joined: 22 Dec 2011 15:20
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CNSA Reaches the Moon!

A few hours ago, China completed a flyby of the moon. The surface has been photographed close up, and potential landing sites determined.


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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 21 Jun 2012 13:30 
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Quote:
December 19th - Cape Canaveral (INN)

Cape Canaveral, Florida -- "Yesterday, the United States launched SCORE (Signal Communications by Orbiting Relay Equipment) as the world’s first communications satellite. Launched aboard an Atlas rocket on December 18th, SCORE has provided a first test of a communications relay system in space, as well as the first successful use of the Atlas as a launch vehicle.

"The six-month effort was the first endeavor of the new Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) headed by Roy Johnson, and proved that a small, highly focused and versatile research group, with appropriate resources was an ideal method to achieve the scientific and technological advances necessary to succeed in the emerging global space race.

"SCORE's technical objectives are two-fold. In addition to showing that an Atlas missile could be put into orbit, the project demonstrated the feasibility of transmitting messages through the upper atmosphere from one ground station to one or more other ground stations. The result of the project, which uses both real-time and store and forward techniques, is a major scientific breakthrough which proves that active communications satellites can provide a means of transmitting messages from one point to any other on Earth. " Director Dickinson announced in a short press conference. After the press conference was over Director Dickinson provided the information provided below.

The SCORE communications package was designed and built by Kenneth Masterman-Smith, a military communication research engineer, along with other personnel from the U.S. Army Signal Research and Development Laboratory (SRDL) at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey.

The overall project was conducted in such secrecy that only 88 people were aware of its existence. Before the date of the SCORE launch, 53 of the 88 people had been told the project had been canceled and they were not to mention to anyone that it had ever existed.

That left only 35 people who knew of the mission of Atlas 10B with the rest of the engineering crew, including the launch crew, under the impression that they were working solely on a test launch of the rocket.

The payload weighs 150 pounds, and was built into the fairing pods of the Atlas missile. The combined weight of the total on-orbit package is 8750 pounds. SCORE was placed into a 114 mile by 920 mile orbit, inclined 32.3 degrees, with a period of 101.5 minutes. Its batteries are projected to last 12 days.

The communications repeater installed on the missile receives a signal, amplifies it, and then retransmits it. Two redundant sets of equipment are mounted in the nose of the SCORE missile. Four antennas are mounted flush with the missile surface, two for transmission and two for reception.

SCORE's other equipment includes two tape recorders, each with a four-minute capacity. Any of four ground stations in the southern United States can command the satellite into playback mode to transmit the stored message or into record mode to receive and store a new message.

The first transmitted message from space to the world below:

"This is the President of the United States speaking. Through the marvels of scientific advance, my voice is coming to you via a satellite circling in outer space. My message is a simple one: Through this unique means I convey to you and all mankind, America's wish for peace on Earth and goodwill toward men everywhere."

The broadcast signal for President Eisenhower's greeting was fairly weak, and only very sensitive radio receivers were able to detect it. Most Americans heard the message as it was rebroadcast on commercial news programs.


Statistics on the Atlas B rocket:

Size

Height: 85 feet
Diameter: 10 feet
Mass: 244,130 lbs
Stages: 2

Capacity

Payload to LEO: 154 lbs

Performance

First Stage: Atlas MA-2
Engines: 1x XLR-89-5
Thrust: 341,130 lbf
Specific Impulse: 282 sec
Burn Time: 135 seconds
Fuel: LOX/Kerosene

Second Stage: Atlas-B
Engines: 1x XLR-105-5
Thrust: 81,655 lbf
Specific Impulse: 309 sec
Burn Time: 240 seconds
Fuel: LOX/Kerosene

Raymond Roberts
Science Desk, International News Network


Attachments:
Atlas-B_with_Score_payload.jpg
Atlas-B_with_Score_payload.jpg [ 55.24 KiB | Viewed 3771 times ]

_________________
Benno the Mad Wrote:
man, you gotta realise that thor and bos fell out of the patriot tree (like the ugly tree, but instills patriotism instead of ugly) and hit every branch on the way down.


"Gone now, dispersed by the brutal destruction of this one day, was the belief that the Darkman and his army of the dead were so superior as to be invincible. By attempting to destroy the morale of the Marines, the Darkman had restored it to full vigor. Dia De La Muerto had failed in its objectives."
The Gunny: Stand of the 300

Si vis pacem, para bellum
If you want peace, prepare for war

Gunny's color #FF2400
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 Post subject: Re: Game Two Events Thread
PostPosted: 21 Jun 2012 13:44 
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Sergeant Major of the USMC
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Joined: 23 May 2005 16:49
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Top Stories for the month of December 1958:

Quote:
December 1st - Mexico City (INN)

Today Adolfo López Mateos takes office as President of Mexico.


December 1st - Chicago INN)

Chicago, Illinois -- It has been announced that the fire at Our Lady of the Angels School has killed ninety students and three nuns in a fire in Chicago.

The fire began in the basement of the older north wing between about 2:00 p.m. CST and 2:20 p.m. Classes were due to be dismissed at 3:00 p.m. Ignition took place in a cardboard trash barrel at the foot of the northeast stairwell. The fire smoldered undetected for an estimated 10 to 30 minutes, gradually heating the stairwell and filling it with a light gray smoke that eventually became thick and black.

The smoke began to fill the second floor corridor, but remained unnoticed for a few minutes. At approximately 2:25 p.m., three eighth grade girls, Janet Delaria, Frances J. Guzaldo, and Karen Hobik, returning from an errand came up a different staircase to return to their second floor classroom in the north wing.

The girls encountered the thick smoke, making them cough loudly. They hurriedly entered the rear door of Room 211 and promptly notified their teacher, Sister Helaine O'Neill, who was not yet aware of the smoke. O'Neill got up from her desk and began lining up her students to evacuate the building.

When she opened the front door of the classroom moments later to enter the hallway, the intensity of the smoke caused O'Neill to deem it too dangerous to attempt escape down the stairs leading to Avers Avenue on the west side of the building. She remained inside the classroom with her students, awaiting rescue. The fire continued to strengthen, and several more minutes elapsed before the school's fire alarm rang.

About this same time, a window at the foot of the stairwell shattered due to the intense heat, giving the smoldering fire a new oxygen supply. The wooden staircase burst into flames and, acting like a chimney, sent hot gasses, fire, and black smoke swirling up the stairwell.

Approximately at this moment, the school’s janitor, James Raymond, saw a red glow through a window while walking by the building. After racing into the basement furnace room, he viewed the fire through a door that led into the stairwell.

After warning two boys who were emptying trash baskets in the boiler room to depart the area, Raymond rushed to the rectory and alerted the housekeeper to call the fire department. He then immediately raced back to the school to begin evacuation via the fire escape. The two boys meanwhile had returned to their class and warned their lay teacher, which prompted her and another lay teacher to lead their students out of classrooms in the annex area of the second floor. The lay teachers had looked in vain for the school principal before deciding to act on their own to vacate the school.

As they left the building, the teacher pulled the fire alarm, but it did not ring. Several minutes later, after leaving her students in the church, she returned to the school and activated the alarm on the second attempt. This alarm rang inside the school, but was not automatically connected to the fire department. By this time, however, the students and teachers in the north wing classrooms on the second floor were essentially trapped, whether they knew about the fire or not.

Despite Raymond's hasty visit to the rectory soon after 2:30 p.m. to spread the alert, there was an unexplained delay before the first telephone call from the rectory reached the fire department at 2:42 p.m. One minute later, a second telephone call was received from Barbara Glowacki, the owner of a candy store on the alley along the north wing.

Glowacki had noticed flames in the northeast stairwell after a passing motorist, Elmer Barkhaus, entered her store and asked if a public telephone was available to call the fire department. The police initially thought this 61-year-old man was a suspect in the blaze until Barkhaus came forward and explained himself. Glowacki used the private telephone in her apartment behind the store to notify authorities.

The first floor landing was equipped with a heavy wooden door, which effectively blocked the fire and heat from entering the first floor hallways. However, the northeast stairwell landing on the second floor had no blocking fire door. As a result, there was no barrier to prevent the spread of the fire, smoke, and heat through the second floor hallways.

The western stairwell landing on the second floor had two substandard corridor doors with glass panes propped open (possibly by a teacher) at the time of the fire. This caused further drafts of air and an additional oxygen supply to feed the flames. Two other doors were chained open when they should have been closed; these doors were at the first and second floor levels leading into the annex. The upper door was quickly closed, but the lower one remained open throughout the fire.

As the fire consumed the northeast stairway, a pipe chase running from the basement to the cockloft above the second floor false ceiling gave the superheated gases a direct route to the attic. In the attic the temperature rapidly increased until a flashover occurred.

The fire then swept down through ventilation grates in the second floor corridor and flashed through the cockloft above the classrooms. Glass transom windows above the doors of each classroom broke as the heat intensified, allowing flames in the hallway to enter the classrooms. By the time the students and their teachers in the second floor classrooms realized the danger, their sole escape route in the hallway was impassable.

For 329 children and 5 teaching nuns, the only remaining means of escape was to jump from their second floor windows to the concrete and crushed rock 25 feet below, or to wait for the fire department to arrive and rescue them. Recognizing the trap they were in, some of the nuns encouraged the children to sit at their desks or gather in a semicircle and pray.

Smoke, heat, and flames forced them to the windows. One nun, Sister Mary Davidis Devine, ordered her students in Room 209 to place books and furniture in front of her classroom doors, and this helped to slow the entry of smoke and flames until rescuers arrived. Out of the 55 students in Room 209, eight escaped with injuries, and two died; Beverly Burda, the last student remaining in the room, died when the roof collapsed.

Fire department units arrived within four minutes of being called, but by then the fire had been smoldering unchecked for possibly 40 minutes. It was now fully out of control. The fire department was then hampered because they had been incorrectly directed to the rectory address around the corner on West Iowa Street where valuable minutes were lost repositioning fire trucks and hose lines once the true location of the fire was determined. Additional firefighting equipment was summoned rapidly.

The south windows of the north wing overlooked a small courtyard surrounded by the school on three sides, and a seven-foot iron picket fence on the fourth side facing Avers Avenue. The gate in the fence was routinely locked. Firemen could not get ladders to the children at the south windows without first breaking through the gate. They spent two anxious minutes battering the gate with sledgehammers and a ladder before they managed to smash it by backing a fire truck into the gate. The gate delayed the rescues of rooms 209 and 211.

Firemen began rescuing children from the second floor windows, but nightmare conditions in some of the classrooms had already become unbearable. Children were stumbling, crawling, and fighting their way to the windows, trying to breathe and escape. Many jumped, fell, or were pushed out the windows before firemen on ladders could reach them.

Children jumped with their hair and clothes on fire. Some were killed in the fall, and scores more were seriously injured. Many of the smaller children were trapped behind frantic students at the windows. Some younger students who managed to secure a spot at a window were then unable to climb over the high window sills, or were pulled back by others frantically trying to scramble out.

The firemen struggled desperately to pull students and nuns from windows as classrooms partially filled with screaming children exploded. Firemen noticed that the white shirts of children in the windows changed color and turned brown. A wide portion of the school's roof collapsed, and the massive downward rush of heat instantly killed anyone remaining in the second-floor classrooms.

Glowacki took the injured children into her candy store beside the school to escape the winter chill while they awaited medical attention. Neighbors and parents raced into the school to rescue students on the lower floor or erect ladders outside that proved to be too short for the second floor. 74-year-old Ed Klock suffered a stroke while attempting to assist the children. Residents of houses along Avers Avenue opened their doors to provide sanctuary and warmth for coatless children from the lower grades.

Inside the burning school, a quick-thinking nun rolled petrified children down a stairwell when fear made them freeze. Injured students were rushed to five different hospitals, sometimes in the cars of strangers. Priests from the rectory raced to the scene, grabbing frightened students and escorting them through the smoke to the doors. One of the priests, Father Joseph Ognibene, along with the help of Sam Tortorice, a parent of one of the students, was able to rescue many students by passing them through a courtyard window on the second floor into the annex.

Local radio and television reports quickly transmitted the news across a stunned city. WGN-AM radio continued to broadcast continuous updates of the fire with Chicago Police Officer Leonard Baldy providing the observations from an overhead helicopter. Panicked mothers and fathers left their homes or work places and raced to the school. Mothers pleaded to enter the burning structure.

An anxious crowd of more than 5,000 parents and onlookers had to be held back by police lines during the five-alarm fire. This number grew in the late afternoon as news of the disaster spread and bodies of victims were slowly and carefully removed by firemen. It was first hoped that the number of fatalities might be relatively low, under the mistaken belief that the fire alarm had been sounded early enough. The toll climbed quickly once the blaze was partially extinguished and the firemen were able to explore the building. National television networks interrupted their regular programming to announce details as the scope of the disaster widened.

Between the delayed discovery and reporting of the blaze and the misdirection of the response units to the wrong address, the firemen arrived too late, but this was not their fault. Although they rescued more than 160 children from the inferno, many of the students carried out were already dead. Some of the bodies were so badly charred that they broke into pieces while being picked up.

The Children who survived the fire have been taken to the following hospitals:

Franklin Boulevard Community Hospital (3240 West Franklin Boulevard)
Garfield Park Community Hospital (3821 West Washington Boulevard)
Norwegian American Hospital (1044 North Francisco Avenue)
St. Anne's Hospital (4950 West Thomas Street)
Walther Memorial Hospital (1116 North Kedzie Avenue)

The cause of the fire has not been officially determined. A boy, the name being withheld until proof can be found, age 10 and a fifth grader, has confessed to setting the blaze, but has, subsequently, recanted his confession. It seems he may be more afraid of confessing to his mother and stepfather than to the police. He has also confessed to setting numerous other fires in the neighborhood, mostly in apartment buildings.

This boy had been excused from his classroom to go to the boys' toilet about 2:00 p.m. on the day of the fire. This was roughly the time that the fire began to smolder in the trash barrel at the base of the stairwell. After the incident, a fire investigator found burned matches in the undamaged sacristy area of a chapel located in the basement of the north wing.

In his confession and lie-detector test, the boy related details of the fire's origin that had not been made public and that he should not have known.


December 5th - London (INN)

Today subscriber trunk dialling (STD) has been inaugurated in the UK by the Queen, when she dials a call from Bristol to Edinburgh and speaks to the Lord Provost.

December 5th - London (INN)

Today it was announced that the Preston bypass, the United Kingdom's first motorway, has opened to traffic for the first time.


December 14th – Moscow (INN)

It was announced today that the 3rd Soviet Antarctic Expedition has become the first ever to reach the Southern Pole of Inaccessibility.

The Soviet Antarctic Expedition (SAE or SovAE) (Russian: Советская антарктическая экспедиция, САЭ, Sovyetskaya antarkticheskaya ekspeditziya) is part of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of the Soviet Committee on Antarctic Research of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

The Soviet Union's Ministry of Sea Transport is responsible for the administration, logistics, and supply of the expeditions.

The first Soviet contact with Antarctica was in January 1947 when the Slava whaling flotilla began whaling in Antarctic waters.

The first Soviet Antarctic station, Mirny, was established near the coast on February 13th, 1956. This was added to on December 16th, 1957 by another station, Vostok, which was built inland near the south geomagnetic pole.


December 15th – Washington (INN)

Arthur L. Schawlow and Charles H. Townes of Bell Laboratories publish a paper in Physical Review Letters setting out the principles of the optical laser.


December 16th - Bogota (INN)

Today a fire broke out in the Vida Department Store in Bogota, Colombia, killing 84 people.


December 21st – Paris (INN)

It has been announced that General Charles de Gaulle has been elected president of France with 78.5% of the votes.


December 24th – London (INN)

The British Air Ministry today announced that a BOAC Bristol Britannia (312 G-AOVD) has crashed near Winkton, England during a test flight.


December 25th – Washington DC (INN)

Today Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker (the George Balanchine version) was shown on prime-time television in color for the first time, as an episode of the CBS series Playhouse 90.


December 28th – Baltimore (INN)

The Baltimore Colts beat the New York Giants 23–17 to win the NFL Championship Game, the first to go into sudden death overtime and has been nicknamed "The Greatest Game Ever Played".


December 29th – Havana (INN)

It was announced that rebel troops under Che Guevara began the attack on Santa Clara, Cuba. It has been reported that President Fulgencio Batista will resign in two days, on the night of the 31st.


December 31st – Washington (INN)

Numbers kept on passenger receipts reveal that, for the first time, the total of number of passengers carried by airlines this year has exceeded the total carried by sea in the transatlantic service trade.


David Richlen
International Desk, International News Network


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_________________
Benno the Mad Wrote:
man, you gotta realise that thor and bos fell out of the patriot tree (like the ugly tree, but instills patriotism instead of ugly) and hit every branch on the way down.


"Gone now, dispersed by the brutal destruction of this one day, was the belief that the Darkman and his army of the dead were so superior as to be invincible. By attempting to destroy the morale of the Marines, the Darkman had restored it to full vigor. Dia De La Muerto had failed in its objectives."
The Gunny: Stand of the 300

Si vis pacem, para bellum
If you want peace, prepare for war

Gunny's color #FF2400
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